Repentance is necessary for salvation, and people who repent realize their sinful state and empty life. Repentance comes from God — sinners must accept God’s help — and involves a genuine sorrow and an escape from sin.
“Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not realize that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance?” (Romans 2:4)
Christ died and rose again to deliver humanity from sin. We cannot repent until we turn to Christ, who forgives our sins in the sacrament of Penance.
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The Holy Spirit is the agent of the new spiritual birth.
“Jesus answered: In all truth tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born from above. Nicodemus said, ‘How can anyone who is already old be born? Is it possible to go back into the womb again and be born?’ Jesus replied: In all truth I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born through water and the Spirit; what is born of human nature is human; what is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be surprised when I say: You must be born from above. The wind blows where it pleases; you can hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.” (John 3:3-8)
We surrender to the Holy Spirit to renew our heart and mind, and He develops an interest to know God and change our life.
“I am quite confident that the One who began a good work in you will go on completing it until the Day of Jesus Christ comes.” (Philippians 1:6)